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MagnificationEnlarges objects invisible to the naked eye, revealing details and structures.
ResolutionDefines the level of detail visible – higher resolution allows for clearer distinction of fine structures.
IlluminationUses light sources and lenses to illuminate and magnify the sample.
Types of Microscopes
  • Light Microscope (Optical Microscope): Uses visible light for magnification, most common type in laboratories and classrooms.
  • Electron Microscope: Utilizes beams of electrons for much higher magnifications and resolution, ideal for viewing structures at the atomic level.
  • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM): Creates detailed images of a sample’s surface by scanning it with an electron beam.
  • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM): Allows viewing very thin samples by transmitting electrons through them.
  • Dissecting Microscope (Stereomicroscope): Provides a 3D view of a sample at lower magnification, suitable for examining larger objects.
  • Cell biology: Studying cell structure and organelles.
  • Microbiology: Examining bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.
  • Material science: Analyzing the microstructure of materials.
  • Forensics: Examining evidence for trace materials and fingerprints.
  • Medical diagnosis: Analyzing tissue samples for pathology.
This table highlights the key functionalities of microscopes, including magnification, resolution, illumination, and the various types available (light microscope, electron microscope subtypes, dissecting microscope). It also showcases some of the widespread applications of microscopes in various scientific fields.

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